Upgrading your Application from Ice 3.4

In addition to the information provided in Upgrading your Application from Ice 3.5, users who are upgrading from Ice 3.4 should also review this page.

On this page:

Slicing behavior in Ice 3.5

In version 1.0 of the Ice encoding, Slice classes and user exceptions are always marshaled in a format that allows a receiver to "slice" an unknown derived type to a known base type. An application that uses Ice 3.4 or earlier may depend on this behavior. For example, the slicing feature makes it possible for a sender to evolve independently of a receiver, adding more derived types that the receiver does not understand without causing the receiver to fail should it encounter one of these new types.

Version 1.1 of the Ice encoding introduces two formats for classes and exceptions. The compact format, which is used by default, does not support the slicing feature, meaning an application that relies on this feature may begin to receive NoObjectFactoryException or UnknownUserException errors after upgrading to Ice 3.5. There are several possible solutions:

  • Continue using version 1.0 of the Ice encoding by setting Ice.Default.EncodingVersion to 1.0 in all senders and receivers.
  • If you wish to take advantage of other features offered by encoding version 1.1, you can make the sliced format the default by setting Ice.Default.SlicedFormat to 1 in all senders and receivers.
  • Annotate your interfaces or operations with metadata so that the sliced format is only used where necessary.

Slice language changes in Ice 3.5

The term optional is now a Slice keyword in Ice 3.5, which means existing Slice definitions that use this term as an identifier will generate an error. To continue using optional as an identifier, you can use the Slice syntax for escaping keywords:

struct Example
    bool \optional;

C++ changes in Ice 3.5

The slice2cpp translator no longer generates C++ comparison operators for all Slice structures. Comparison operators are only generated for structures that qualify as a legal dictionary key type. To generate a comparison operator for a Slice structure that doesn't qualify as such, you can prefix the ["cpp:comparable"] metadata to your Slice struct definition.

Java changes in Ice 3.5

The generated code and supporting classes for the various Ice services are now provided as separate JAR files:

JAR FileDescription
Freeze.jarFreeze classes
Glacier2.jarGlacier2 generated code and helper classes
Ice.jarThe core Ice run time, including the IceSSL plugin
IceBox.jarIceBox server, generated code, admin utility
IceGrid.jarIceGrid generated code
IcePatch2.jarIcePatch2 generated code
IceStorm.jarIceStorm generated code

Also note that the manifest in Freeze.jar no longer contains a reference to db.jar, so you may need to update your class path to include db.jar.

The Eclipse Plug-in still includes only Ice.jar by default, but you can easily include additional JAR files by changing the Slice2Java properties for your project.

Python changes in Ice 3.5

Ice 3.5 adds support for Python 3. Developers who are migrating existing Ice applications from Python 2 to Python 3 should be aware of the following changes that affect the Python language mapping:

  • One of the most significant changes in Python 3 is its unification of the unicode and string types into just one type, str. Python developers must convert any existing unicode literals and variables into their string equivalents. For Ice developers, a benefit of this unification is that all string values sent "over the wire" are now sent and received as unicode strings. With Python 2.x, the Ice run time behavior remains unchanged: string and unicode values are both accepted as inputs, but only string values are returned as outputs.
  • The Python 3 mapping for the Slice type sequence<byte> now defaults to the new Python type bytes. A string value is no longer accepted as a legal value for sequence<byte> with Python 3.

PHP changes in Ice 3.5

For compatibility with newer PHP releases, the Ice extension no longer supports "call-time" reference arguments when calling Ice_initialize and Ice_createProperties. For example, existing applications may invoke Ice_initialize with an explicit reference argument as follows:

$communicator = Ice_initialize(&$argv);

The proper way to call this function using Ice 3.5 is shown below:

$communicator = Ice_initialize($argv);

Ice-specific arguments are now removed from the given argument vector.

IPv6 changes in Ice 3.5

IPv6 is now enabled by default on all platforms. You can disable the use of IPv6 in Ice by setting the Ice.IPv6 property to 0, which may be necessary in environments that lack IPv6 support. The new property Ice.PreferIPv6Address determines whether IPv4 or IPv6 addresses take precedence when resolving host names.

Migrating IceGrid databases from Ice 3.4

Ice 3.5 supports the migration of IceGrid databases from Ice 3.3 and from Ice 3.4. To migrate from earlier Ice versions, you will first need to migrate the databases to the Ice 3.3 format. If you require assistance with such migration, please contact support@zeroc.com.

To migrate, first stop the IceGrid registry you wish to upgrade.

Next, copy the IceGrid database environment to a second location:

$ cp -r db recovered.db

Locate the correct version of the Berkeley DB recovery tool (usually named db_recover). It is essential that you use the db_recover executable that matches the Berkeley DB version of your existing Ice release. For Ice 3.3, use db_recover from Berkeley DB 4.6. For Ice 3.4, use db_recover from Berkeley DB 4.8. You can verify the version of your db_recover tool by running it with the -V option:

$ db_recover -V

Now run the utility on your copy of the database environment:

$ db_recover -h recovered.db

Change to the location where you will store the database environments for IceGrid 3.5:

$ cd <new-location>

Next, run the upgradeicegrid35.py utility located in the config directory of your Ice distribution (or in /usr/share/Ice-3.5 if using an RPM installation). The first argument is the path to the old database environment. The second argument is the path to the new database environment.

In this example we'll create a new directory db in which to store the migrated database environment:

$ mkdir db
$ upgradeicegrid35.py <path-to-recovered.db> db

Upon completion, the db directory contains the migrated IceGrid databases.

By default, the migration utility assumes that the servers deployed with IceGrid also use Ice 3.5. If your servers still use an older Ice version, you need to specify the --server-version command-line option when running upgradeicegrid35.py:

$ upgradeicegrid.py --server-version 3.4.2 <path-to-recovered.db> db

The migration utility will set the server descriptor attribute ice-version to the specified version and the IceGrid registry will generate configuration files compatible with the given version.

If you are upgrading the master IceGrid registry in a replicated environment and the slaves are still running, you should first restart the master registry in read-only mode using the --readonly option, for example:

$ icegridregistry --Ice.Config=config.master --readonly

Next, you can connect to the master registry with icegridadmin or the IceGrid administrative GUI from Ice 3.5 to ensure that the database is correct. If everything looks fine, you can shutdown and restart the master registry without the --readonly option.

IceGrid slaves from Ice 3.3 or 3.4 won't interoperate with the IceGrid 3.5 master. You can leave them running during the upgrade of the master to not interrupt your applications. Once the master upgrade is done, you should upgrade the IceGrid slaves to Ice 3.5 using the instruction above.

Migrating IceStorm databases from Ice 3.4

No changes were made to the database schema for IceStorm in this release. However, you still need to update your databases as described below.

Migrating Freeze databases from Ice 3.4

No changes were made that would affect the content of your Freeze databases. However, we upgraded the version of Berkeley DB and the new 1.1 encoding may require that you re-create your indices or set some additional configuration if you use Freeze maps. If you only use Freeze evictors, you only need to upgrade your databases to the new Berkeley DB format. See Encoding Version 1.1.

Upgrading to the Berkeley DB 5.3 format

When upgrading to Ice 3.5, you must upgrade your database to the Berkeley DB 5.3 format. The only change that affects Freeze is the format of Berkeley DB's log file.

The instructions below assume that the database environment to be upgraded resides in a directory named db in the current working directory. For a more detailed discussion of database migration, please refer to the Berkeley DB Upgrade Process.

To migrate your database:

  1. Shut down the old version of the application.
  2. Make a backup copy of the database environment:

    > cp -r db backup.db      (Unix)
    > xcopy /E db backup.db   (Windows)
  3. Locate the correct version of the Berkeley DB recovery tool (usually named db_recover). It is essential that you use the db_recover executable that matches the Berkeley DB version of your existing Ice release. For Ice 3.4, use db_recover from Berkeley DB 4.8. You can verify the version of your db_recover tool by running it with the -V option:

    > db_recover -V
  4. Use the db_recover tool to run recovery on the database environment:

    > db_recover -h db
  5. Recompile and install the new version of the application.
  6. Force a checkpoint using the db_checkpoint utility. Note that you must use the db_checkpoint utility from Berkeley DB 5.3 when performing this step.

    > db_checkpoint -1 -h db
  7. Restart the application.

Freeze maps and the 1.1 encoding

The majority of Freeze maps will work out of the box with the new 1.1 encoding and without additional configuration. However there are a few cases where you will be required to take special action or add some configuration:

  • If your Freeze maps use keys with Slice enumerations having more than 127 elements, the encoding of those keys will be incompatible with the 1.1 encoding. You will need to set the Freeze.DbEnv.<env-name>.EncodingVersion  property to 1.0 to ensure that you decode the keys with the 1.0 encoding and not with the default 1.1 encoding.
  • If your Freeze maps use indices and those indices use Slice classes, or use Slice enumerations having more than 127 elements, you have two options:
    1. Re-create the indices with the 1.1 encoding. To recreate your indices, you have to recreate the Freeze maps using the recreate method generated on the Freeze map classes by slice2freezej. See the Freeze Maps documentation for more information.
    2. Set the Freeze.DbEnv.<env-name>.EncodingVersion  property to 1.0 to ensure that Freeze still uses the 1.0 encoding for your indices.
  • If you use indices with Java Freeze maps and the map value uses classes, you have to recreate the indices because of a bug in the encoding of the Ice 3.4 indices. This only affects Java Freeze maps; C++ Freeze maps are not affected by this issue.

If you configure your Freeze database environment to use the 1.0 encoding, you will not be able to take advantage of the new features provided with the 1.1 encoding, such as optional values and the new formats for classes.

Migrating Android applications from Ice 3.4

Prior versions of the Ice plug-in for Eclipse (including the version released for Ice 3.5b) created a workspace variable named ICE_HOME that referred to the Ice installation directory configured in Eclipse's Preferences dialog. After adding the Slice2Java builder to a project, the builder updated the project's build path to include Ice JAR files relative to ICE_HOME. For example, Ice.jar was configured as the library reference ICE_HOME/lib/Ice.jar.

As of Ice 3.5.0, the Eclipse plug-in no longer uses the ICE_HOME variable. Instead, it now uses the workspace variable ICE_JAR_HOME to refer to the subdirectory containing Ice.jar, equivalent to the previous setting of ICE_HOME/lib. Consequently, a new project's build path now includes the library reference ICE_JAR_HOME/Ice.jar.

The plug-in does not attempt to modify the build path of an existing Ice for Android project to use ICE_JAR_HOME, nor does it remove ICE_HOME from the workspace. An existing project can continue to use the ICE_HOME variable in its build path, but moving or copying the project to a new workspace where ICE_HOME is no longer defined means the project's build path must be updated.

Changed APIs in Ice 3.5

This section describes APIs whose semantics have changed, potentially in ways that are incompatible with previous releases.

The following APIs were changed in Ice 3.5:

  • The dynamic invocation and dispatch API now requires encapsulations for input parameters and output results. For example, when calling ice_invoke, the value for inParams must be an encapsulation of the input parameters:

    Ice::OutputStreamPtr out = Ice::createOutputStream();
    // marshal parameters
    Ice::ByteSeq inParams;
    // invoke operation...

    Similarly, the byte sequence containing the results must also be an encapsulation:

    Ice::ByteSeq results;
    // invoke operation...
    Ice::InputStreamPtr in = Ice::wrapInputStream(results);
    // unmarshal results
  • The streaming API uses new methods to mark the beginning and end of objects and exceptions: startObject/endObject and startException/endException.

Removed APIs in Ice 3.5

This section describes APIs that were deprecated in a previous release and have now been removed. Your application may no longer compile successfully if it relies on one of these APIs.

The following APIs were removed in Ice 3.5:

  • Ice.Default.CollocationOptimization
    Use  Ice.Default.CollocationOptimized instead.

  • proxy.CollocationOptimization
    Use proxy.CollocationOptimized instead.
  • adapter.RegisterProcess
    This property caused the Ice run time to register a proxy with the locator registry that allowed the process to be shut down remotely. The new administrative facility has replaced this functionality.

  • Ice.ServerId
    As with adapter.RegisterProcess, this property was used primarily for IceGrid integration and has been replaced by a similar mechanism in the administrative facility.

  • Ice.Trace.Location
    This property has been replaced by Ice.Trace.Locator.

  • Glacier2.Admin and IcePatch2.Admin
    These are the names of administrative object adapters in Glacier2 and IcePatch2, respectively. The functionality offered by these object adapters has been replaced by that of the administrative facility, therefore these adapters (and their associated configuration properties) are no longer necessary.
  • Ice.Util.generateUUID()
    In Java use java.util.UUID.randomUUID().toString(). In C# use System.Guid.NewGuid.ToString().

  • Object.ice_hash()

    Ice no longer defines hash methods for objects and proxies. To convert a proxy into a string, use the standard platform methods: toString in Java, ToString in C#.

Deprecated APIs in Ice 3.5

This section discusses APIs and components that are now deprecated. These APIs will be removed in a future Ice release, therefore we encourage you to update your applications and eliminate the use of these APIs as soon as possible.

The following APIs were deprecated in Ice 3.5:

The following components were deprecated in Ice 3.5:

  • Qt SQL database plug-ins for IceGrid and IceStorm
    Freeze is now the only supported persistence mechanism for these services.